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Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands.
Founded on October 12 of 1884 by Augusto Lasserre, it is located on the shores of the Beagle Channel surrounded by the Martial mountain, in the Bay of Ushuaia.
It is located at the coordinates: 54 ° 48'57 "S 68 ° 19'04" W and at 6 msnm . The city of Ushuaia limits to the north with the existing department of Rio Grande, to the east with the Atlantic Ocean, the west with Chile and to the south with the Beagle Channel.
The weather is cold, with an average annual temperature of 5.7 ° C and a low annual oscillation ranging from 1.5 in July to 9.4 ° C in January. They are strange temperatures of more than 25 ° C in summer and of -12 ° C in winter.
The lowest temperature record (-20 ° C) [July] and highest temperature record (31 ° C) [December]. Lowest temperature record in summer -6 ° C [February]. The Rainfall, which in winter is usually in the form of snow, is 524 mm per year and distributed evenly throughout the year. In spite of receiving that amount of precitaciones, the climate of Ushuaia is very humid. On average, the city records 160 rainy days a year, and there are some cloudy and foggy days. Because temperatures are low throughout the year there is little evaporation. It has snowed even in summer. The climate belongs to the oceanic subpolar. Very strong winds strike the city, and that is why the unprotected trees of storms grow in the direction of the wind, and are therefore called "flag-trees" because of the inclination they are forced to take.
The North of the Big Island of Tierra del Fuego presents meadows covered with good pastures, that favor the breeding of livestock. In the Central Zone coexist grasslands and forest patches dominated by the ñire, making the mount more dense and high towards the South, where the lenga is added to the characteristic vegetation. The relief is more rugged than in the steppe.
In the southern mountainous region dominate the thick forests of lenga and guindo, while also grow species such as ñire, canelo, calafate and smaller communities such as bells, ferns, orchids and lichens. In the valleys vegas and peat bogs of great extension are formed. In the region of islands and Antarctica, the rigorous climate and the existence of a permanent state of glaciation are not favorable for the vegetal development being lichens and mosses.
The fauna of the Big Island, is composed of a rich variety of seabirds (penguin, albatross, petrel), coastal (cormorant, beach capuchin, steam duck), inland waters (maca, biguá), Open areas (common caboquén, condor). Among the main terrestrial mammals are guanaco, tuco-tuco and fox (Patagonian and Colorado), and in the interior waters are located the beaver, the muskrat and the river wolf. Marine mammals include the dolphin, the southern dolphin, the pilot whale and the leopard seal, and those from the coast to the sea lion, the sea elephant and the sea otter. In the rivers of the Fuegian territory are seen: brook trout, salmon enclosed, rainbow trout, brown trout. Among the tidal areas are mollusks and marine crustaceans. In the Antarctic region, the elephant seals, the Weddell seal, the crab seal, the leopard seal, the Antarctic wolf, the blue whale, the free whale and the orca. Among the birds predominate the penguins: adelia, papua, chinstrap and emperor, among others; Petrels, albatrosses, cormorants and Antarctic pigeons.